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Příprava kmenového učitele na příchod dítěte s postižením do běžné ZŠ

Termín:11.10.2012 (9:00-12:00)
Místo konání:Dům dětí a mládeže Olomouc - velký sál
Anotace:Jak připravit učitele, aby na dítě s postižením nebylo nahlíženo jinak nejen dětmi ve třídě, ale i rodiči dětí bez postižení a v neposlední řadě také pedagogickým sborem. V naší společnosti je stále mnoho předsudků a falešného soucitu. Vnímáme rozdíl mezi integrací a asimilací? Integrace by měla být koadaptační – vzájemně obohacující. Aniž bychom si to někdy uvědomovali, klademe si podmínky, za jakých přijmeme děti či dospělé osoby se zdravotním postižením do intaktní společnosti. Rozbor možných situací a vcítění se do dítěte s postižením.

What will 2022 convey in the manner of incorrect information on social media? 3 specialists weigh in

Anjana Susarla gets funding from the Omura-Saxena Professorship in Responsible AI at Michigan State University and from the National Institute of Health
Dam Hee Kim received a research present from South Korea's NAVER Corporation and investment from Arizona's Social & Behavioral Science Research Institute.
Ethan Zuckerman gets funding from the MacArthur Foundation, the Knight Foundation and the Ford Foundation. He is affiliated with the Danielle Allen for Governor (MA) campaign.
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At the quit of 2020, it appeared hard to imagine a worse year for incorrect information on social media, given the depth of the presidential election and the trauma of the COVID-19 pandemic. But 2021 proved up to the mission, starting with the Jan. 6 rebel and continuing with copious amounts of falsehoods and distortions about COVID-19 vaccines.
To get a experience of what 2022 ought to keep, we asked three researchers approximately the evolution of misinformation on social media.
Anjana Susarla, Professor of Information Systems, Michigan State University
While incorrect information has always existed in media – think about the Great Moon Hoax of 1835 that claimed life became found at the moon – the appearance of social media has significantly elevated the scope, unfold and attain of incorrect information. Social media platforms have morphed into public records utilities that manipulate how maximum human beings view the arena, which makes misinformation they facilitate a essential hassle for society.
There are primary demanding situations in addressing incorrect information. The first is the shortage of regulatory mechanisms that address it. Mandating transparency and giving customers more access to and manipulate over their records may go a long manner in addressing the challenges of incorrect information. But there’s additionally a need for impartial audits, such as gear that examine social media algorithms. These can set up how the social media structures’ choices in curating information feeds and offering content material affect how humans see facts.
The 2d undertaking is that racial and gender biases in algorithms used by social media structures exacerbate the misinformation trouble. While social media businesses have introduced mechanisms to highlight authoritative assets of records, solutions inclusive of labeling posts as incorrect information don’t clear up racial and gender biases in getting access to information. Highlighting relevant resources of, for instance, fitness facts might also only help customers with greater health literacy and not humans with low fitness literacy, who have a tendency to be disproportionately minorities.
Another problem is the want to look systematically at where customers are locating incorrect information. TikTok, as an instance, has largely escaped authorities scrutiny. What’s more, misinformation concentrated on minorities, in particular Spanish-language content material, may be a long way worse than incorrect information concentrated on majority communities.
I consider the dearth of impartial audits, lack of transparency in reality checking and the racial and gender biases underlying algorithms used by social media systems advise that the need for regulatory motion in 2022 is urgent and on the spot.

Dam Hee Kim, Assistant Professor of Communication, University of Arizona
“Fake news” is hardly a new phenomenon, but its prices have reached another stage in current years. Misinformation concerning COVID-19 has fee limitless lives all over the international. False and deceptive statistics about elections can shake the muse of democracy, as an instance, by means of making residents lose self assurance in the political gadget. Research I carried out with S Mo Jones-Jang and Kate Kenski on incorrect information at some stage in elections, a few posted and a few in development, has became up three key findings.
The first is that using social media, initially designed to attach human beings, can facilitate social disconnection. Social media has end up rife with misinformation. This leads residents who devour information on social media to emerge as cynical now not handiest toward hooked up institutions such as politicians and the media, however additionally in the direction of fellow voters.
Second, politicians, the media and electorate have emerge as scapegoats for the harms of “fake news.” Few of them honestly produce incorrect information. Most misinformation is produced by way of foreign entities and political fringe businesses who create “faux news” for economic or ideological purposes. Yet citizens who eat misinformation on social media tend accountable politicians, the media and other voters.
The 0.33 finding is that people who care approximately being properly knowledgeable are no longer resistant to incorrect information. People who opt to technique, shape and apprehend statistics in a coherent and meaningful way come to be more politically cynical after being uncovered to perceived “faux information” than those who are much less politically state-of-the-art. These crucial thinkers end up frustrated by using having to technique so much false and deceptive facts. This is troubling due to the fact democracy depends on the participation of engaged and considerate residents.
Looking in advance to 2022, it’s important to cope with this cynicism. There has been an awful lot communicate about media literacy interventions, mostly to assist the less politically sophisticated. In addition, it’s vital to find methods to provide an explanation for the reputation of “fake news” on social media, especially who produces “fake news,” why some entities and businesses produce it, and which Americans fall for it. This could help maintain humans from growing extra politically cynical.
Rather than blaming each different for the harms of “fake information” produced by using foreign entities and fringe companies, human beings need to find a manner to repair self assurance in each other. Blunting the results of incorrect information will help with the larger aim of overcoming societal divisions.

Ethan Zuckerman, Associate Professor of Public Policy, Communication, and Information, UMass Amherst
I anticipate the idea of incorrect information will shift into an idea of propaganda in 2022, as counseled by way of sociologist and media student Francesca Tripodi in her imminent ebook, “The Propagandist’s Playbook.” Most misinformation isn't always the result of innocent false impression. It’s the product of specific campaigns to strengthen a political or ideological time table.
Once you recognize that Facebook and other platforms are the battlegrounds on which current political campaigns are fought, you may let pass of the idea that all you need are statistics to correct human beings’s misapprehensions. What’s happening is a extra complex blend of persuasion, tribal affiliation and signaling, which plays out in venues from social media to go looking results.
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As the 2022 elections warmness up, I expect platforms like Facebook will reach a breaking point on incorrect information due to the fact certain lies have come to be political speech important to celebration association. How do social media platforms manipulate whilst fake speech is also political speech?

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